retail vs wholesale cbdc

Retail vs wholesale CBDC

Instrument CBDCs are designed to be used by every kind of stakeholder in an economy, as with cash. But we can broadly categorise the types of payments that would typically be made with a CBDC into: • Retail (households and businesses) • Wholesale (banks, financial institutions, payment providers) What is a retail CBDC? Retail CBDCs …

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design choices of a cbdc

Design choices of a CBDC

There is no one-size-fits-all CBDC, and each will inevitably reflect the unique economic, structural, and technical needs of the country in which they are implemented. Governments wishing to implement digital currency solutions will have to make a number of considerations, not least of all the extent to which a CBDC replaces cash. At minimum, CBDC …

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challenges and risks of a cbdc

The challenges and risk of a CBDC

There are several challenges associated with implementing a CBDC. Digital currencies remain in an early phase, and more research and experimentation are required to provide the necessary understanding of their possible economic and social impact. Nonetheless, our analysis finds the case for central bank-issued digital currencies to be compelling, especially given the many flaws with …

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